Surface-modified cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were developed for efficient delivery of polymeric siRNA in cancer cells. Cationic CNCs were synthesized using the sequential process of hydrothermal desulfation and chemical modification following which, polymeric siRNA obtained using from a two-step process of rolling circle transcription and Mg2+ chelation was complexed with the modified CNCs by electrostatic interaction. The complexation efficiency was optimized for high drug loading and release in the cytoplasmic environment. The resultant nanocomplex showed significantly enhanced enzymatic stability, gene knockdown efficacy, and apoptosis-induced in vitro therapeutic effect. Our results suggest CNCs as a promising carbohydrate-based delivery platform which could be utilized for RNAi-mediated cancer therapeutics.